Guiné-Bissau: relatório da ONU pede reforma abrangente do sistema de saúde

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16/06/2017

Um relatório da ONU divulgado no início de junho (8) revela que a implementação do direito à saúde na Guiné-Bissau está enfrentando enormes desafios.

Segundo o documento, a instabilidade política, a pobreza endêmica, os déficits de prestação de contas, do acesso a alimentos, educação, água potável e saneamento – e um sistema de saúde que precisa de reformas – levam a violações do direito à saúde, particularmente no que diz respeito à saúde materna e infantil, saúde sexual e reprodutiva, HIV/AIDS, tuberculose e malária.

Embora reconheça melhorias nos últimos anos, o relatório do Gabinete das Nações Unidas para a Consolidação da Paz na Guiné-Bissau (UNIOGBIS) e do Escritório de Direitos Humanos da ONU (ACNUDH) faz uma série de recomendações voltadas para uma reforma abrangente do sistema de saúde no país, incluindo a melhoria do monitoramento e da responsabilização.

O relatório destaca que a maioria das clínicas de saúde e postos básicos de saúde carecem de eletricidade ou abastecimento de água. Além disso, os salários no setor são baixos. Ainda de acordo com o documento, os trabalhadores que prestam cuidados de saúde em alguns postos básicos de saúde muitas vezes são obrigados a fazer partos à luz de velas, sem acesso a água estéril.

Dadas as altas taxas de mortalidade de recém-nascidos e suas mães na Guiné-Bissau, tais deficiências são particularmente alarmantes e precisam ser abordadas. Em 2016, a taxa de mortalidade infantil era de 60,3 por mil nascidos vivos. Em 2015, a taxa de mortalidade materna era de 549 óbitos por 100 mil nascidos vivos – entre as piores do mundo.

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Panamá, de construir un canal a fabricar un Estado

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27/12/2016, by Adrián Albiac

Muchos pensarán que el canal de Panamá recibe su nombre de la república que lo alberga; sin embargo, la historia es más bien al revés. En este artículo trataremos de desvelar los orígenes de un país confeccionado por políticos y lobistas de Wall Street.

En la mesita de noche de la suite 1162 del hotel Walford Astoria descansa entreabierta la novela Captain Macklin. Publicada en 1902, relata las aventuras de un joven cadete de West Point y un veterano militar francés que, tras acabar en Honduras, inician una revolución que los llevará hasta la presidencia del país. La historia, más allá de la entretenida acción de la novela, puede que no sea demasiado transcendente; sin embargo, en las manos adecuadas, puede resultar tremendamente inspiradora.

Jon Hay, que además de secretario de Estado de los EE. UU. es un gran lector, es consciente de esto y en su último encuentro con Philippe Bunau-Varilla ha procurado entregarle un ejemplar de la novela al francés. ¿Por qué no fingir ser esos dos grandes aventureros de Captain MacKlin? Al fin y al cabo, ellos también llevan varios meses intentando crear un nuevo país en Centroamérica. Si en la novela MacKlin y el general Laguerre tenían Honduras, ellos tendrán Panamá.

No obstante, retrocedamos un poco. Como todas las buenas historias, esta debe ser contada desde el principio.

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Is North Korea really a “hollowed out” state?

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23/06/2017, by Sven Jurschewsky

In 1994, just five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the United States and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed  the Agreed Framework, which was aiming to suspend the latter’s nuclear programme.

Although the agreement eventually failed, US policy became predicated on the belief that the Democratic People’s Republic, like the communist states of Eastern and Central Europe just before 1989, is “hollowed-out” and on the verge of collapse. However, North Korea has manifestly not collapsed.

A “hollowed-out” state is no longer capable of sustaining itself. In common-sense terms, a “hollowed-out” state cannot or does not provide its citizens with basic necessities. Alternatively, for a state to be considered “hollow”, the belief system on which it has based itself on has to be meaningfully called into question. Of course, even a state that exhibits these characteristics can still continue to be effectively operational, as long as it has functional instruments of repression.

The state organs of control continue to function with robust health in North Korea, but that is not the reason for the state’s persistence.

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Eurogroup approves $9.5bn bailout for Greece

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16/06/2017, by John Psaropoulos

Correction/June 16, 2017: A previous version of this story stated that Greece had been granted long-term debt relief. That was incorrect. Eurozone ministers only agreed to a bailout deal and warned that Greece would have to wait for debt relief.

Greece came away from Thursday’s Eurogroup meeting with a $9.5bn (€8.5bn) loan installment and the beginnings of a commitment to longer-term debt relief – the Syriza government’s key demand since it came to power in 2015.

The six hour-long meeting of Eurozone finance ministers effectively brought the International Monetary Fund on board with Greece’s third bailout loan, currently held only by European institutions, because the IMF insisted on debt relief as a precondition.

“Nobody claims that this is the best solution,” said IMF chief Christine Lagarde, who attended the Eurogroup session. “That would have been a final approval on debt relief so that there would be clarity. This is second best.”

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Neoliberalism, big capital and the Zambian crisis

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16/06/2017, by Vitor Laterza

Zambia’s opposition leader Hakainde Hichilema and five others were arrested two months ago on treason charges. As the court proceedings drag on, they remain in custody and have recently been transferred to a maximum security prison.

According to the state prosecutors, Hichilema’s motorcade intentionally blocked President Edgar Lungu’s convoy on the way to an important traditional ceremony in western Zambia. Hichilema is accused of trying to overthrow the government. He contested last year’s presidential election at the head of the United Party for National Development (UPND) and lost to Lungu by a narrow margin. He never accepted the results and accused Lungu of rigging the vote.

The case has attracted widespread condemnation internationally, causing more clamour after South African opposition politician Mmusi Maimane was refused entry into the country when he wanted to attend Hichilema’s trial.

Several civil society organisations read the arrest of the opposition leader as the culmination of Lungu’s ongoing clampdown on democratic freedoms and dissenting voices. At the end of 2014, Lungu took over as the leader of the ruling party Patriotic Front (PF), after a succession struggle following the death of President Michael Sata. Since then, there has been an escalation of political violence among supporters of the two main parties, mass arrests of opposition members, and a systematic silencing of the media, including the closure of The Post, the country’s biggest independent newspaper.

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What’s Wrong With Our System Of Global Trade And Finance

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09/06/2017, by John Judis

I first learned of Dani Rodrik in 1997 when I came across his pamphlet, Has Globalization Gone Too Far?. That pamphlet created a sensation in a Washington awash with “new economy” optimism. It was an opening salvo against what Rodrik has come to call “hyper-globalization.” Since then, the fissures that Rodrik saw in the global system have become crevasses. Rodrik has continually updated his own critique. His most comprehensive statement was in his 2011 book, The Globalization Paradox.

Rodrik was born in Istanbul in 1957, part of Turkey’s small Sephardic Jewish community. He came to the United States to attend college at Harvard and subsequently got a PhD. in economics at Princeton. He has taught political economy at Harvard’s Kennedy School for most of the last 32 years. Besides writing books and articles, he also has a blog, where he comments regularly on American, European, and Turkish politics. He is a noted critic of Recip Tayyip Erdogan’s administration.

As globalization has come under attack from the left and right, I wanted to ask Rodrik what he thought about the jeremiads from the Trump administration and how he assessed the problems of global capitalism in the wake of the Great Recession.

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NAFTA needs a facelift, not a lobotomy

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06/05/2017, by Earl Anthony Wayne, opinion contributor

Mexico, Canada and the United States will soon sit down to update the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Moving toward that process, U.S. and Mexican business leaders and officials will meet Tuesday in Washington with the “modernization” of NAFTA, as the U.S. Trade Representative put it to Congress, on the agenda.

Many agree that this effort is worthwhile to keep our region competitive. After 23 years, parts of the agreement should be adjusted, for example, to include e-commerce, data flows and other products and services that have emerged since 1994. U.S. companies have a strong presence in these sectors. Other aspects of NAFTA will be reviewed in light of the decades of experience to address shortcomings. Each country will have their particular areas of concern.

Three key premises should be central to discussions, however: (1) recognizing the real value of the trade, investment and production networks that currently support jobs and businesses across North America; (2) acknowledging that others in the world are rapidly improving their own competitiveness; and (3) identifying areas ripe for collaboration to help preserve and create new jobs in the face of the technological revolutions and global competition ahead.

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