Cuba é o primeiro país do mundo a erradicar transmissão materna de HIV e sífilis

 

18/04/2017

Cuba se tornou recentemente o primeiro país do mundo a receber a validação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de eliminação da transmissão vertical – de mãe para filho – do HIV e da sífilis.

O sucesso da ilha caribenha é mais um passo em direção é um passo na direção certa para reduzir a ameaça global do HIV e da AIDS, uma das metas do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) número 3. Confira nessa matéria especial em vídeo.

Fonte: ONU Brasil

Anúncios

Baños para el desarrollo

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19/07/2017, by Gemma Roquet

En el mundo hay 748 millones de personas sin acceso a agua potable. Una de las causas es la ausencia de infraestructuras de saneamiento adecuadas, entre las cuales destaca la falta de un baño en cada hogar. La situación es más grave de lo que parece: en el mundo hay más personas con teléfono móvil que con un baño. ¿Qué consecuencias tiene semejante carencia?

Una buena salud es fundamental para el desarrollo humano. Además de tener acceso a infraestructuras sanitarias como hospitales, esta también está condicionada por elementos cotidianos que pueden garantizarla, como la existencia de inodoros y otras infraestructuras de saneamiento. El saneamiento mejorado o básico incluye todas aquellas instalaciones que aseguran una higiénica separación entre los excrementos y las personas: letrinas o inodoros que vierten en un sistema de alcantarillado, a una fosa séptica o a un pozo simple, un pozo negro con ventilación o losa o un sistema de inodoros secos.

Teniendo en cuenta que cada persona emite cien gramos de excrementos y litro y medio de orina al día, se debería priorizar la manera como se depositan estos desechos, que contienen virus, bacterias y parásitos, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades. A menudo se piensa en grandes estrategias para combatir la pobreza, pero dar acceso a un baño adecuado a los dos tercios de la población que no lo tienen sería una inversión con efectos positivos inimaginables. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), cuando todo el mundo tenga acceso a un saneamiento adecuado, la calidad del agua será más óptima y el número de personas muertas debido a su contaminación se reducirá.

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How we can find ways to finance universal education for all

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14/08/2017, by Steven J. Klees

The 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals represent a remarkable commitment by the international community to eliminate poverty and improve health, the environment, education, and much more in all countries by 2030. The SDG for education is straightforward: “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.”

Unfortunately, we are a long way from achieving this goal, particularly in developing countries. More than 250 million of the world’s 1.6 billion children are not in school, and 400 million lack basic literacy. If current trends continue, by 2030 half of all children will not have the basic skills needed for employment.

The main problem is a shortage of resources. While developing countries can finance more than 90% of what they need to ensure universal access to quality primary and secondary education, there is still a large funding gap – approaching $40 billion in 2020, and $90 billion by 2030 – that must be filled by international aid.

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Arbitraje internacional: justicia privatizada

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17/07/2017, by Trajan Shipley

El arbitraje es un método alternativo de resolución de conflictos que ha cobrado un gran auge en disputas comerciales internacionales. En estos casos, las partes pueden decidir no someter su controversia a la jurisdicción de un país, sino a la tutela de un tribunal de arbitraje privado. Analizaremos con tres casos si se trata realmente de un sistema eficiente y la importancia que ha obtenido con los tratados de libre comercio.

Recientemente, se ha puesto de manifiesto el problema de los tribunales de arbitraje internacional. Al sostener que únicamente benefician a multinacionales, violan Constituciones o que privatizan la justicia, se tiende a pensar que es un instrumento negativo para la mayoría de los ciudadanos. Pero, a pesar de sus defectos, ¿puede resultar positivo en algunos aspectos?

La principal ventaja que ofrece el arbitraje es una mayor flexibilidad a la hora de resolver la controversia con la misma seguridad jurídica que en un tribunal. Al decidir someterse a un arbitraje, las partes disponen de más libertad a la hora de afrontar el proceso: pueden escoger a los árbitros, el idioma, el lugar o los plazos que se van a seguir. Aunque es un procedimiento que tiene un coste elevado en la mayoría de ocasiones, puede suponer un ahorro de dinero en casos en los que el proceso se prolongaría infinitamente en los tribunales, lo que ofrece una solución más rápida y sencilla.

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All Hands on Deck: Confronting the Challenges of Capital Flows

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02/08/2017, by Atish R. Ghosh, Jonathan D. Ostry, e Mahvash S. Qureshi

The global financial crisis and its aftermath saw boom-bust cycles in capital flows of unprecedented magnitude. Traditionally, emerging market economies were counselled not to impede capital flows. In recent years, however, there has been growing recognition that emerging market economies may benefit from more proactive management to avoid crisis when flows eventually recede. But do they adopt such a proactive approach in practice?

In recent research, we analyze the policy response of emerging markets to capital inflows using quarterly data over 2005–13. Our analysis shows that emerging markets do react to capital flows—most commonly through foreign exchange intervention and monetary policy, but also using macroprudential measures and capital controls. Ironically, the most commonly prescribed instrument for coping with capital flows—tighter fiscal policy—is the least deployed in practice.

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We need a Social Economy, Not a Hyper-Financialized Economy

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28/07/2017, Charles Hugh Smith

We all know what a hyper-financialized economy looks like–we live in one:central banks create credit/money out of thin air and distribute it to the already-wealthy, who use the nearly free money to buy back corporate shares, enriching themselves while creating zero jobs. Or they use the central-bank money to outbid mere savers to scoop up income-producing assets: farmland, rental properties, etc.

This asymmetric wealth accumulation and avoidance of risk creates a self-reinforcing feedback loop, as the super-wealthy financiers and corporations use a slice of their income to buy political protection of their income streams, creating cartels and quasi-monopolies that are impervious to competition and meaningful regulation.

The only possible output of a hyper-financialized economy is rapidly increasing wealth and income inequality–precisely what we see now.

What we need is a social economy, an economy that recognizes purposes and values beyond maximizing private gains by any means necessary, which is the sole goal of hyper-financialized economies.

Given the dominance of profit-maximizing markets and the state, we naturally assume these are the economy. But there is a third sector, the community economy, which is comprised of everything that isn’t directly controlled by profit-maximizing companies or the state.

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Breaking the Link Between Extreme Weather and Extreme Poverty

14/11/2016

In 2013, an estimated one million Filipinos were plunged into poverty after Typhoon Haiyan sapped $12.9 billion from the national economy and destroyed over a million homes.

No sooner had the 2010 Cyclone Aila devastated coastal areas of Bangladesh than unemployment and poverty levels surged 49 percent and 22 percent, respectively.

Economic strains facing Guatemala after Hurricane Stan in 2005 forced 7.3 percent of affected families to send children to work instead of school.

Whenever disaster strikes, it leaves more than just a trail of devastation—it also leaves communities further in the grip of poverty.

And yet, when we hear of natural disasters today, their financial cost—that is, the damage inflicted on buildings, infrastructure, and agricultural production—is what catches the headlines. New research, however, suggests that reducing natural disasters to their monetary impact does not paint the whole picture. In fact, it distorts it.

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